It is likely that somewhere between 5 to 11 percent of American children suffer with ADHD. Children with this diagnosis frequently have difficulty adjusting in academic settings and are often diagnosed after entering a school based program. Not only can they have difficulty adjusting to their school environment but there behavior at home can also be challenging and concerning to parents. Children with ADHD typically demonstrate impulsive behavior and may have difficulty tolerating frustration. They have difficulty focusing their attention on task related activities and may be overactive.
ADHD is considered to be a developmental disorder which effects what are called executive functions in the brain. It is a neurological challenge which usually begins at birth and in most cases is genetically transmitted from generation to generation. At times it can result from smoking, drug usage, or alcohol use during pregnancy. It may also develop from a severe head injury, infection, or lead poisoning.
There are three major types of ADHD which are classified according to their symptoms. These include impulsivity, inattention, and overactivity and are listed below.
- Inattentive Type
- Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
- Combined Type
Most children with ADHD will show considerable symptom reduction after being evaluated and prescribed appropriate medication; however, giving medication is frequently a concern for many parents. Helping children develop improved coping mechanisms and supporting social skills development may also be helpful. Addressing parenting and family communication is typically a part of effective counseling with this diagnosis. Therapy typically involves both individual counseling for the child and therapeutic involvement with parents to improve their ability to implement effective structure and to optimize family communications.